상추 (Lactuca sativa, Garden Lecttuce, チシャ•チサ)
국화과 왕고들빼기속의 두해살이풀. 채소로 널리 재배하고 있다. 높이가 1m에 달하며 가지가 많이 갈라진다. 꽃은 6-7월에 피고 황색이다. 봄에 새 줄기가 비대해질 무렵에 채취하여 식용한다. 깻잎과 함께 한국 요리에서 쌈채소로 가장 많이 생식하는 잎이다.
재배품종은 크게 결구상추•반결구상추•잎상추•배추상추의 4가지로 분류된다. 한국에서는 주로 잎상추를 먹는데 대표적인 품종에는 치마상추•뚝섬녹축면상추•적축면상추가 있다. 결구종은 주로 수입종으로 그레이트레이크•팬레이크가 있다. 많이 재배되는 계통에는 결구•반결구성의 양상추와 비결구성의 줄기상추가 있다.
잎을 뜯어 먹는 상추는 이미 BC 6세기에 페르시아에서 식용되었으며, 그리스•로마에 보급되어 유럽에 널리 퍼졌다. 5세기까지는 중국에도 전해졌으며 중국을 거쳐 한국에 전래된 것으로 보이는데, 이것이 재래종 상추이다.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. One variety, the celtuce (asparagus lettuce) (t: 萵苣; s: 莴苣; woju), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption. Europe and North America originally dominated the market for lettuce, but by the late 20th century the consumption of lettuce had spread throughout the world. World production of lettuce and chicory for 2017 was 27 million tonnes, 56% of which came from China.
Lettuce was originally farmed by the ancient Egyptians, who transformed it from a plant whose seeds were used to create oil into an important food crop raised for its succulent leaves and oil-rich seeds. Lettuce spread to the Greeks and Romans; the latter gave it the name lactuca, from which the English lettuce is derived. By 50 AD, many types were described, and lettuce appeared often in medieval writings, including several herbals. The 16th through 18th centuries saw the development of many varieties in Europe, and by the mid-18th century cultivars were described that can still be found in gardens.